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From A-Z incorporates a wealth of footage and incredible facts from the past 13 years of Top Gear. Viewers get to see the greatest moments from the past 22 seasons, including behind the scenes of incredible builds, eventful trips abroad, exhilarating races, outrageous challenges, and the many famous faces who have graced the Dunsfold track.

Klima ermöglicht Feuer, Wetter facht es an. Archived from the original on 13 July Retrieved 17 May

Contexte pétrolier 2017 et tendances

From A-Z incorporates a wealth of footage and incredible facts from the past 13 years of Top Gear. Viewers get to see the greatest moments from the past 22 seasons, including behind the scenes of incredible builds, eventful trips abroad, exhilarating races, outrageous challenges, and the many famous faces who have graced the Dunsfold track.

Together, these companies make the Petronas Group, which is involved in various oil and gas based activities.

The group is engaged in a wide spectrum of petroleum activities, including upstream exploration and production of oil and gas to downstream oil refining ; marketing and distribution of petroleum products ; trading; gas processing and liquefaction ; gas transmission pipeline network operations; marketing of liquefied natural gas ; petrochemical manufacturing and marketing; shipping; automotive engineering ; and property investment.

The company is headquartered at the Petronas Towers which was officially opened on Malaysia's 42nd National Day, 31 August — in the corporation's 24th Anniversary year.

In , the first oil well was drilled in Miri. This oil well is later known as the Grand Old Lady. There were no other drilling activities in Borneo or British Malaya until s.

Several factors converged in the early s to prompt the Malaysian government into setting up a state oil and gas company. Several countries such as United Arab Emirates , Egypt, and Indonesia have adopted the production sharing agreement instead of concession system for oil revenue distribution. Malaysian government also believed that foreign oil companies did not properly inform the government regarding the oil exploration activities in their respective concessions such as new discovery of oil fields , thus resulted in loss of revenue to the government.

The formulation of Malaysian New Economic Policy in early s encourage Malaysians to take control of various modern industries and to open more economic opportunities for bumiputera Malaysian natives.

Former chief minister of Sarawak, Tun Abdul Rahman Ya'kub was one of the first who proposed the idea of Malaysia setting up an oil company in In fact, since the formation of Malaysia in , the issue of territorial waters of Sabah and Sarawak has not been fully addressed, thus leaving its interpretation wide open.

The Sarawak government has declared that the territorial waters extends well beyond the three mile limit defined by the Malaysian federal government. Therefore, Rahman decided to keep the conflict as low profile as possible. Rahman's nephew, Abdul Taib Mahmud assumed the role of federal land and mines minister after Rahman became the chief minister of Sarawak.

Taib believed in the sharing of oil royalties between the state and the federal government. During the time, the oil mining activities in Sarawak were still under exclusive control of Shell. Taib Mahmud initially suggested to allow independent contractors to market government oil. A government hydrocarbon committee was later set up.

Taib Mahmud visited Indonesia and had a discussion with Pertamina Indonesian state owned oil and gas company. Taib suggested that Malaysia to scrap the concession system and replace it with production sharing agreement. However, there was no laws that allow Malaysia to take back the concessions without paying compensations to foreign oil companies. However, Rahman Ya'kub protested his nephew decision and threatened the federal government to court if Sarawak were to left out of this oil deal.

Tengku Razaleigh suggested the formation of a company instead of a statutory body where the former would distributes profits equally between the federal and the state governments. Rahman agreed with the suggestion. Tengku Razaleigh drafted the Petroleum Development Act together with his associates in secret, as instructed by Tun Razak, and to be completed before the Malaysian general election. Rahman Ya'kub then telephoned Tengku Razaleigh to ask about the terms offered by the Malaysian federal government.

Tengku Razaleigh then told Rahman regarding abolishment of the concession system. Rahman agreed with the deal. In , the Petroleum Development Act was tabled in parliament and approved. Tengku Razaleigh refused to bulge in. Oil exploration was by no means at an end and could yet produce more reserves.

The Seligi field, which came onstream at the end of and was developed by Esso Production Malaysia, was one of the richest oilfields so far found in Malaysia waters, and further concessions to the majors would encourage exploration of the deeper waters around Malaysia, where unknown reserves could be discovered.

Meanwhile, computerised seismography made it both feasible and commercially justifiable to re-explore fields which had been abandoned, or were assumed to be unproductive, over the past century. Another way to postpone depletion was to develop sources of oil, and of its substitute, natural gas, outside Malaysia. In May , the governments of Malaysia and Thailand settled a long-running dispute over their respective rights to an area of 7, square kilometres in the Gulf of Thailand by setting up a joint administrative authority for the area and encouraging a joint oil exploration project by PETRONAS, the Petroleum Authority of Thailand , and the US company Triton Oil.

In a separate deal, in October , the Petroleum Authority of Thailand arranged with PETRONAS to study the feasibility of transferring natural gas from this jointly administered area, through Malaysia to Thailand, by way of an extension of the pipelines laid for the third stage of the Peninsular Gas Utilisation Project.

That project was on course to becoming a major element in the postponement of oil depletion. Contracts for line pipes for the second stage of the project were signed in with two consortia of Malaysian, Japanese, and Brazilian companies. This stage, completed in , included the laying of kilometres of pipeline through to the tip of the Peninsula, from where gas could be sold to Singapore and Thailand ; the conversion of two power stations— Port Dickson and Pasir Gudang —from oil to gas; and the expansion of PETRONAS' output of methyl tert-butyl ether MTBE , propylene , and polypropylene , which were already being produced in joint ventures with Idemitsu Petrochemical Co.

The third and final stage of the project was to lay pipelines along the northwest and northeast coastlines of the Peninsula and was completed in More to the point, a side effect of the refinery's completion was that PETRONAS was able to refine all of the crude oil it produced, instead of being partially dependent on refining facilities in Singapore. PETRONAS, with its policies of promoting self-reliance, helping to develop associated industries, and varying the sources and uses of oil and gas, played an important role in the Malaysian economy as a whole.

During the mid- to late s, international exploration, development, and production remained key components in PETRONAS' strategy along with diversification.

A key discovery was made in the Ruby field in Vietnam in That year, the firm also saw its first overseas production from the Dai Hung field in Vietnam and established its first retail station outside of Malaysia in Cambodia. In addition, the company's polyethylene plant in Kerteh began operations.

Between and , it purchased the former sub-Saharaian branch of Mobil Oil, rebranded as Engen Petroleum. While the Asian economy as a whole suffered from an economic crisis during and , Malaysia was quick to bounce back due to successful government reforms.

The firm set plans in motion to build three petrochemical plants in Kuantan as well as an acetic facility in Kerteh. Its first LPG joint venture in China was launched that year and the company acquired a The company also signed a total of five new production sharing contracts PSCs in and , and began oil production in the Sirri field in Iran. The company forged deals for two new exploration plots in Pakistan and began construction on the Chad-Cameroon Integrated Oil Development and Pipeline Project.

The firm also made considerable progress in its petrochemicals strategy, opening new gas-based petrochemical facilities in Kerteh and Gebeng. Lubrita lubricants back side labels available in 5 languages: English, German, French, Spain and Russian.

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Lubrita International become a member of GS1 organization! GS1 Member Organizations in over countries provide implementation tools and services in their area. Bar codes and the GS1 System of identification are a trusted friend providing enormous benefits to our world. You may know about maintaining your car that is you have to change the Engine lubrication oils time to time.

What you may not know is where the oil goes, what does it do? The first task of oil in the engine is to keep the things oily so they could not get dry. Just think for a while if the eardrum-piercing sounds of metal pistons screeching up and down inside a dry cylinder.

There are pleasant effects of keeping the engine lubricated with automotive lubricants. There is little friction, which makes a sense that engine has to make little effort to keep it running. So, it means that it is able to skate on less fuel can run at the lower temperature. And this means that less wear and tear on the engine parts. Engine needs to fill with clean oil so it can perform well.

That is certainly not an oil change. That absolutely means oiling the chassis and suspension system. None of them shares the oil with lubrication system in engine. The Engine lubrication system is considered to give a flow to the clean oil at the accurate temperature , with a appropriate pressure to each part of the engine. The oil is sucked out into the pump from the sump, as a heart of the system, than forced between the oil filter and pressure is fed to the main bearings and also to the oil pressure gauge.

The oil passes through the main bearings feed- holes into the drilled passages which is in the crankshaft and on to the bearings of the connecting rod. The bearings of the piston-pin and cylinder walls get lubricated oil which dispersed by the rotating crankshaft. By the lower ring in the piston the excess being scraped. Each camshaft bearing is fed by the main supply passage from a branch or tributary. And there is another branch which supplies the gears or timing chain on the drive of camshaft.

The oil which is excesses then drains back to the sump, where the heat is being transferred to the surrounding air. If the crankshaft journals get worn, the engine will be having very low oil pressure and will throw oil all over inside the engine. The unnecessary splash will overcome the rings and can cause the engine to use that oil. Simply replacing the bearing inserts can restore the worn bearing surfaces. In well maintained engine, bearing wear take places instantly after a cold start because there is less or no oil film between the shaft and bearing.

At the time that enough automotive lubricants is dispersed through the hydrodynamic lubrication system apparent and stops the bearing wear progress. Piston rings - cylinder. A sliding seal avoiding leakage of the air mixture or fuel is provided by piston rings. It gets weaken into the oil sump while combustion and compression from the combustion chamber.

On other hand, from leaking into the combustion area they keep oil in the sump, where it will be burned and lost. Those cars that burn oil and have to be added, a quart at every 1, miles are flaming it because the rings get no longer to be sealed properly.

Hydrodynamic lubrication prevails in the center of the cylinder wall and the piston rings of the good maintained car, essential for the very lower wear and friction.

The thickness of the film becomes assorted and minimal lubrication may exist where the piston will stop to redirect on the top and bottom of the dead centre. To analyze or realize well head transfer from the piston to the cylinder, a finest sealing, a minimal thickness of film and a minimum of oil burning is desirable.

Oil controlling ring keeps minimal the thickness of film. This is ring is located after the piston rings so that the surplus oil directly scraped down to the sump.

To lubricate the following ring the oil film left on the cylinder wall by the passage of this ring will be available. Oil degradation results by the air mixture or leakage of the fuel which exhaust from the combustion chamber into the oil sump.

That is why, frequent replenish of oil despites, oil change will remain essential or it can also become more essential. Picture, engine lubricating scheme: Please visit our website: All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

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