What Happened in 1987 Important News and Events, Key Technology and Popular Culture

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The Thessalonians receive the first of Paul's epistles - the earliest text in the New Testament, written in Greek. A western adaptation of the Persian cult of Mithras, evolving probably in Anatolia, is spread through the empire by the Roman army. A working week of seven days is adopted in Rome, based on the seven known planets whose names provide the days.

The leaders of the Christian church gather in Jerusalem to decide an urgent question - must Gentile converts undergo circumcision? Tribes speaking Finno-Ugric languages are by now settled around the northeast of the Baltic, in modern Estonia and Finland. Go to Finno-Ugric in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The year-old Nero is proclaimed emperor by the praetorian guards after the death of Claudius, supposedly poisoned by toadstools.

St Peter, believed to have come to Rome as leader of the Christian community, is subsequently considered the first pope. St Paul arrives in Rome a prisoner, but then spends two years freely preaching Christianity. Boudicca launches a devastating attack on Roman soldiers and settlers, destroying their headquarters at Colchester. A great fire in Rome is popularly believed to have been started by Nero, whom legend also accuses of fiddling while the city burns.

Go to Nero 54—68 ce in A Dictionary of the Bible 2 ed. Early Christian tradition states that both Peter and Paul meet death in Rome as martyrs, possibly as a result of the fire of AD The Zealots play a prominent part in the uprising which expels the Romans from Jerusalem. Josephus is in Jerusalem at the start of the rebellion against the Romans, and will later describe its suppression in his Jewish War. Nero comes to Athens to give some of his officially celebrated performances at the Greek games.

The Essenes hide their sacred scrolls in caves near the Dead Sea, to save them from the Romans. A rebellion in Spain prompts such chaos that Rome has four emperors within a year, after the suicide of Nero in Vespasian, proclaimed emperor by his troops in Alexandria, is the survivor among this year's four emperors. Titus recovers Jerusalem for Rome, after four years of Jewish rule.

Go to Titus ad 39—81 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The complete destruction of the Jewish Temple follows the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans. The first yeshiva , established by Johanan ben Zakkai at Yavne, begins a strong tradition of Jewish scholarship in the Diaspora.

The last of the Jewish insurgents are besieged in the stronghold of Masada, eventually killing each other to end their ordeal. Go to Masada in A Dictionary of the Bible 2 ed. Hero, a Greek scientist in Alexandria, devises various forms of steam engine.

Go to Hero of Alexandria c. The Acts of the Apostles are written, probably by Luke — the evangelist and companion of Paul on his final journey to Rome. The dioptra , developed by Hero of Alexandria for surveying land, is an early form of theodolite. Agricola, appointed Roman governor of Britain in AD 77, establishes Chester as a stronghold from which to control the Welsh tribes. Titus becomes emperor on the death of his father, Vespasian, and begins a brief two-year reign of lavish public generosity.

A sudden eruption of Vesuvius buries the town of Pompeii in volcanic ash, in places twelve feet deep. The Colosseum is inaugurated by the emperor Titus with games lasting days, in which some large animals are killed. Dying after a reign of only two years, Titus is succeeded on the imperial throne by his brother, Domitian.

Go to Domitian ad 51—96 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Agricola defeats the tribes of Scotland at an unidentified place called Mons Graupius, probably almost as far north as Aberdeen. Tacitus begins his career with two specialized but influential works of history, one on Britain and the other on Germany. Go to Tacitus, Cornelius c. Trajan, succeeding to the imperial throne in AD 98, is sufficiently confident to spend a year in Germany before returning to Rome. Go to Trajan c.

A naturalistic style of Buddhist sculpture develops in the Gandhara region, part of modern Pakistan. A cult develops in Rome of the Egyptian goddess Isis, credited with restoring to life her husband, Osiris, after he has been hacked to pieces.

Sculptors in the Roman empire develop the most brutally realistic convention in the history of portraiture. Mecca develops into a place of pilgrimage, with a famous collection of idols in the Ka'ba.

Go to Kaaba in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The Celtic chieftains of Britain adapt willingly to Roman customs and comforts. Theravada Buddhism, strong in south India and Sri Lanka, travels with traders through southeast Asia. Realistic portraits, done in hot wax and preserved in coffins at Fayyum, vividly depict inhabitants of Roman Egypt. Teotihuacan, the dominant city in the northern highlands of central America, introduces the god Quetzalcoatl.

The network of Roman roads stretches eventually from England to Egypt. The first accounts of Scotland, written by the Romans, name the Caledonii as the most important tribe of the region. Buddhism, arriving with trade along the Silk Road from India, puts down firm roots in China. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR for personal use for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice.

Publications Pages Publications Pages. Search within my subject specializations: Medicine and health Music Names studies Performing arts Philosophy. History, Early history CE to Publisher: This "Timeline in Optics" highlights important events and developments in the science of optics from prehistory to the beginning of the 21st century. It also includes related developments in other fields e. Prehistory to - Thousands of years after humans started using fire to illuminate the night, Greek and Arab scholars begin to formulate theories of how light is propagated, how it can be reflected and refracted, and how it is perceived by the eyes.

In Medieval Europe, Copernicus launches the scientific revolution with his shocking theory that the Earth revolves around the sun.

In addition, radio becomes a popular broadcast communications medium, television is invented, and Tombaugh discovers Pluto. Lasers and fiber optics create new media for communications, information storage, and entertainment. Cyberspace becomes a reality with the creation of the Internet and the World Wide Web. The Molecular Expressions "Timeline in Optics" is an ongoing project.

If you believe you have found a mistake or wish to make a comment or suggestion, please send us an email. Visit the Molecular Expressions Website.