On the one hand the agents have to respect the characteristics of the energy converters and the generation units present in their regional portfolios, on the other hand they have to agree on an overall optimal energy supply with their neighboring areas. One main finding is that peak load can be expected two hours after the highest probability of departure.
"Diskontsätze" English translation
The experimental framework We propose to setup an experimental framework which intends to analyze the factors influencing consumer behavior for electricity consumption.
The analysis will be supported by the smart metering projects underway with the Smart Metering group at MIT, which have setup a smart metering device called the Energy Box. Such device, distinguishes from existing smart metering mechanisms because of the way it conveys information to the user. Although a complex project, with details outscoping the objective of this abstract, the box is composed of a real time energy meter fitted with a screen that will convey information to the user in a intuitive form.
The way the user will receive information will transform its normal daily functions into impacts on the environment. In case a real time energy market is set into place, the energy box may additionally send information about the cost of energy from period to period, which may lead to rational behaviors, when the user is lead to maximizing its utility. These experiments will be happening both in Boston and Lisbon. Similarly, and following the existing experiments happening in Portugal in terms of monitoring energy consumption in Portugal using smart metering, we will develop a framework to analyze the results, and modifications of habits.
Applying the knowledge Going forward, there will be a need to create a unifying consumer behavior theory that will enclose the results that emerge from the experimental work in course. This work will allow to create scenarios of future energy flows including it in the current energy flow models, and to try to understand the impact of government energy policies and incentives.
References  IPCC, The endowment effect, loss aversion and status quo bias. In Choices, values and frames.
Quick reference Community-based social marketing. Fostering sustainable behaviors, New Society Publishers, p. A cost curve for greenhouse gas reduction. A Strategic Approach to Climate. November, 85 10 , p. Understanding customer behavior to improve demand re- sponse delivery in California. Endowments and contrast in judgments of well-being. The main aspect of the project is the consideration of multiple energy carriers, i.
By exploiting synergies among various forms of energy, system improve- ments in terms of overall energy cost reduction, system emission reduction and increase of reliability of supply can be achieved. The couplings between the different energy infrastructures are taken into account with the novel concept of the Energy Hub, which is a generalization and extension of a network node including conversion, conditioning and storage of multiple energy carriers.
Energy systems are built up by a certain number of Energy Hubs. Based on these concepts, further methods have been developed. One of them is the application of mean-variance portfolio theory to portfolios generating multiple energy carriers. Efficient multi-energy portfolios are determined by considering a set of possible scenarios and technologies. Using this method, investments in multi-carrier energy systems can be planned taking into account relevant risk factors.
The resulting technology mixes can be considered as Energy Hubs. A network of interconnected hubs forms a distributed power generation structure where each hub is controlled by its respective control agent. A distributed control scheme is applied in order to guarantee the energy supply of the whole system during operation. In order to arrange coordination between hubs, the distributed control scheme is extended and applied to the geographically distributed portfolios.
Here, these two con- cepts, portfolio theory and distributed control, are applied to a system consisting of three hubs, interconnected by an electricity and natural gas network. Investment de- cision makers therefore need techniques for the quantification of these risks. Mean-variance portfolio theory is an appropriate method to take risks of investment projects into account and has successfully been applied to several studies in the electric energy sector -.
Inspired by the Energy Hub concept, which enables the integrated modeling of multiple energy carriers, mean-variance portfolio theory is extended and applied to portfolios providing multi-energy outputs, e. By simultaneously considering various forms of energy during the planning process, this extension of portfolio theory permits a comprehensive long-term investment planning of energy generation mixes.
When considering portfolios with multiple energy outputs, the portfolio energy carrier ratio xout, i. In this way, a certain value of the vector xout required in the supply area under consideration can be used as constraint in the portfolio optimization in order to calculate efficient frontiers for the desired amounts of energy outputs.
For this purpose, the conversion efficiencies of each considered technology with respect to each form of output energy, e.
The resulting quantity is the share of a certain energy output in the overall energy output of one technology. The values for conversion efficiencies are chosen as average values over the assumed lifetime of the power plants. A detailed description of the multienergy portfolio model can be found in . The resulting generation mixes, i. Such issues can result in different generation technology mixes in different supply areas. The aggregated technology mixes portfolios can be considered as Energy Hubs.
The energy exchange between these Energy Hubs representing different supply areas has to be coordinated during operation. This is accomplished by applying distributed control, which will be outlined in the following subsection.
As the various generation technologies cannot always be operated at their optimal capacity, e. In order to coordinate this generation adaption as well as the energy exchange between portfolios during operation, distributed control is applied to provide the system wide optimal operation of the whole system.
For this, one agent is defined for each area, which is responsible for the energy supply of the respective area. On the one hand the agents have to respect the characteristics of the energy converters and the generation units present in their regional portfolios, on the other hand they have to agree on an overall optimal energy supply with their neighboring areas. In order to guarantee the energy supply of the whole system, an optimal power flow OPF problem is solved taking into account all areas.
This optimization problem is formulated by an objective function to be minimized, subject to equality and inequality constraints: The objective function penalizes the devia- tions between the optimal long-term operation point defined by the rated capacities of the converters and generators in the portfo- lio and the actual operation point, which is determined by the actual short-term load and generation situation during operation: The system constraints comprise the power flow equations 5 and limits on voltage magnitudes, active power flows, pressures, power generations, etc.
This overall optimal power flow problem is now decomposed into subproblems according to the different regions. Each subprob- lem is assigned to a responsible control agent. As the individual optimization problems depend on one another, the agents need to coordinate their actions among each other. In order to achieve this coordination, the decomposition method derived in  is applied to the considered energy system.
The mathematical procedure is illustrated for two interconnected areas A and B. The two subproblems are solved in an iterative way, independently but coordinated.
The objective and the constraints of the over- all optimization problem 4 - 6 are separated and assigned to the areas only equality constraints are considered here, inequality constraints are handled the same way. The coordination is enabled by so-called coupling constraints marked by tilde , which contain variables from both areas.
These constraints prevent each subsystem from operating independently from the others. The same holds for the coupling constraints assigned to area B. For both areas, the variables of the neighboring areas are kept con- stant and marked by superscript k indicating the iteration step. After each completed iteration step, the updated system variables are exchanged between the areas.
Convergence is achieved as soon as the exchanged variables no longer change significantly between two consecutive iterations. Further details can be found in . Firstly, optimal energy generation mixes are determined for the re- gions long-term planning. Secondly, short-term operation is implemented applying the distributed control procedure.
Example of a hub system. Long-term planning determines the generation mix of the hubs, short-term operation enables coordination between the hubs. To illustrate the process of determining efficient multi-energy generation mixes, a portfolio generating electricity, heat and hydrogen is con- sidered. Heat and hydrogen are generated and consumed locally, i.
The set of technologies consists of wind T1 , small hydro T2 , photovoltaics T3 , biogas-fired engines T4 , natural gas-fired engines T5 , thermal solar panels T6 , gas boilers T7 and technologies for the production of hydrogen via electrolysis T8 , via natural gas reforming T9 and via solar thermal water splitting T In order to calculate the input data for the portfolio optimization the covariance matrix and the mean returns of the technologies , the scenario-based method described in  is used.
For each possible risk level, i. Depending on his attitude towards risk averse, neutral or seeking and the degree of this attitude, the system planner will choose a certain portfolio. In this application example, it is assumed that the system planner in region 1 chooses a low risk level, the sys- tem planner in region 2 a medium risk level and the system planner in region 3 a high risk level.
The resulting optimal long-term generation mixes in the three regions consequently differ from each other. For the application of the distributed control procedure, certain technologies are aggregated in homogeneous groups, e. In the same way, CHP units and technologies generating heat are aggregated in groups. In doing so, one obtains a simplified system which consists of three equal hubs structured like hub 2 in Fig. The results of the portfolio analysis, in particular, the active power generations of all generators PG1, PG2 and PG3, the natural gas infeed Ng and the operation points of the converter devices, i.
The operation point of the converter devices is defined by a factor vi, which indicates the share of gas in the total gas consumption of hub i fed into the CHP unit. Consequently 1-vi defines the gas input going into the furnace. Having obtained the above defined long-term optimal operation values, distributed control is applied in order to ensure the energy supply during operation while respecting the different compositions of generation technologies.
After 27 iteration steps a coordination among the three hubs is achieved. First, the generators stick to their pre-defined operating points uport as defined by the portfolio. However, no coordination can be achieved on this generation level due to discrepancies within the the electric and gas power flows between the hubs. Thus, each control agent has to adapt the generation of its respective control area in order to fulfill the system-wide energy supply.
The same behaviour is obtained for the remaining control variables. The final actual values of the control variables ureal dif- fer from those defined by the portfolio uport as the the line losses of the interconnecting networks are not taken into account during portfolio analysis. Both networks, electricity and natural gas, exhibit line losses, especially compressor losses are considerable. A more detailed analysis of the simulation results is presented on the poster. On the one hand, they apply a long-term perspective to the planning of multi-energy generation assets using portfolio theory.
On the other hand, the distributed control scheme enables the short-term operation of these generation assets and guarantees coordination between them. Thus, both methods, particularly their combined application, make a useful contribu- tion to the existing methods for multi-energy system planning and operation. In addition, there is growing public and political concern with the rising greenhouse gas GHG emissions, namely CO2, which are associated with climate change issues .
In order to comply with these political goals, biofuels production must increase a great deal. The most widely considered biofuel substitute for fossil diesel is biodiesel, which is produced from vegetable oils.
The only Portuguese native crop which could be now considered with the purpose of producing biodiesel is sunflower. That is the case of soybean, rapeseed and palm oils that are being imported from other parts of the world Brazil, Canada in order to produce biodiesel.
For that reason, new energy sources must be analyzed in order to address these issues. In this sense, microalgae oil appears as a potential solution, since it does not compete with food crops, has much higher production yields and has other potentialities, such as CO2 capture and water treatment [7, 8].
Accordingly, a life cycle assessment [9, 10] was performed in order to evaluate the described fuel pathways national sunflower, imported crops and microalgae , having conventional fossil diesel as the reference see Figure 1. This study included not only a well-to-tank analysis but also a tank-to-wheel, since the vehicle usage simulation was also performed.
For instance, for the calculation of the energy and CO2 life cycle assessment of sunflower see Figure 1 , the following stages were considered: For these stages the following tools were used: Simapro , Gabi  and Gemis .
For the vehicle simulation stage a micro simulation model for vehicles — Ecogest  — was used. The characterization of Portugal in terms of its biodiesel fuel pathways will allow us to estimate the future potential energy sources in Portugal that will serve the road transport until References  Portuguese Energetic Balance.
The Swiss government plans an annual production of 50— GWh of electricity from wind energy by The siting of wind turbines is becoming vital in order to sustain this growth and to efficiently capture the natural wind resource. This paper presents some initial experimental and computational work undertaken as part of a longer-term wind energy research project. This project involves the research and development of efficient, cost-effective and reliable wind turbines specifically for operation in harsh environments, such as the Swiss Alps.
These environments are desirable because the high wind speeds allow more power to be obtained for a given size of turbine. However, the usage of such sites is presently limited as turbine performance in harsh environments is currently not well understood, and wind turbines are prone to loss of efficiency, overproduction of electric- ity, damage, significant periods of downtime and even failure. Water Towing Tank Experiments The first part of the study involved the flow visualisation of a scale model turbine in a water towing tank, Figure 1.
The water towing tank is used rather than a wind tunnel since it allows full-scale non-dimensionals to be matched on a sub-scale model. Due to blockage considerations the rotor model is limited to a diameter of 0. The initial results allowed the qualitative assessment of the effect of the wind turbine tower on the wake. Here 2 photos from previous studies are shown as an example — actual results will be shown here for the ex- tended abstract and poster — expected in June Figure 2: Dye injection flow visualisation examples.
The Effects of Icing on Output Power The second part of the study involved the numerical estimation of wind turbine power loss caused by ice accretion on the blades in typical Alpine climates.
This was done by combining drag and lift coefficients of various iced airfoils using the publicly available 2D computational code XFoil with a BEM momentum method code developed at Imperial College, London, to obtain the power coefficient at a range of tip speed ratios. Blade ice accretion is recognised as a significant hindrance to efficient wind turbine operation in cold environments, due to aero- dynamic losses, load increase and ice throw.
However, the effects are not well understood, and further research could lead to developments in wind turbine design, certification and choice of siting. Future Plans Future planned work includes Particle Image Velocimetry flow visualisation in the water towing tank under a wide range of tur- bulent, high yaw, and accelerating flow conditions, as well as measurements of unsteady blade pressure and strain.
A blade ice measurement device is under development in order to understand and quantify ice accretion under different conditions. Realistic ice shapes will then be measured and modelled for the towing tank tests in order to better correlate icing with power losses.
An equal installation rate from renewable sources or nuclear does not seem to be realistic in the short to medium term on a worldwide scale. Therefore, electricity production with carbon dioxide capture and storage CCS represents a very important option against the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration and to mitigate the climate change, while at the same time allowing for the continued use of fossil fuels.
Within the NEEDS project New Energy Externalities Development for Sustainability of the European Commission — , aiming at improving and integrating external cost assessment, Life Cycle Assessment LCA , and energy-economy modeling as well as applying multi-criteria decision analysis for a technology roadmap up to year , LCA of power generation systems suitable for Europe were performed.
This paper presents environmental life cycle inventories and cumulative LCA results as well as external costs of electricity production for selected representative evolutionary hard coal, lignite, and natural gas power tech- nologies with focus on long term technology development.
Methodology The environmental assessment covers complete energy chains from fuel extraction through, when applicable, the ultimate se- questration of CO2, using ecoinvent as background LCA database . The three main technology paths for CO2 capture are represented: Transport of CO2 by pipeline over several distances and storage of CO2 in geological formations at different depths like saline aquifers and depleted gas reservoirs, which are the most likely solutions to be implemented in Europe, are modeled based on assumed average European conditions .
Three different scenarios for technology development, from pessimistic to very optimistic, are included in the modeling, covering the range of possible technical progress till Results The LCA results show that adding CCS to fossil power plants, although resulting in a large net decrease of CO2 emissions per unit of electricity, is likely to produce substantially more greenhouse gas GHG emissions than claimed by near-zero emission power plant promoters when the entire energy chain is accounted for, especially for post-combustion capture technologies and hard coal as a fuel Figure 1.
Besides, the lower net power plant efficiencies due to high energy demand for CO2 separation and compression at the power plant lead to higher consumption rates of non-renewable fossil fuels. Evaluat- ing the environmental performance of power generation with CCS by calculation of external costs per unit of electricity shows a benefit of CCS, relatively sensitive to the monetized damage factor of GHG emissions.
Greenhouse gas emissions per kWh produced at PC power plants hard coal for two time frames; CO2 separation by post or oxyfuel combustion; CO2 transport by pipeline over km or km; CO2 storage at depths of m Aquifer — Aq or m depleted Gasfield — dGf. European Commission, to be issued Energy Policy 35 , p. Typical savings in energy and cooling requirements of over 80 percent can be achieved. A rapid implementation of virtualization technology allows not only for a reduced burden on the environment, but also for a better utilization of existing systems as well as significantly more flexible IT infrastructure.
This can then be very easily adapted to changing requirements via a central control console. A systematically optimized and standardized implementation results in a more easily maintainable environment, which leads to sustainable lower operational cost in addition to lower energy consumption. There are already highly optimized virtualization technologies on the market. For example, mainframes that operate hundreds of logical systems with just a few processors, as well as POWER systems that make hundreds of UNIX systems superfluous, or highly scalable x86 machines which replace dozens of conventional x86 systems.
These technologies allow a modern data center to be shrinked to just a few single machines. The impact in energy efficiency is excellent. This poster presentation will focus on implemented projects, the technology behind and what can be achieved with highly virtual- ized and efficient data center infrastructures. Several compa- nies have started to deploy highly virtualized IT infrastructures to avoid this slowdown in IT. Accelerated implementation of efficient virtualization technologies has the potential to even reduce the currently required level in energy and its carbon footprint.
This has been achieved by the implementation of a complete virtualized IT infrastructure. A reduction of 3. This development results in a rising number of distributed power plants, which are principally subject to substantial energy fluctuations. These interconnecting devices would enable full control of magnitude and direction of real and reactive power flow and could replace not controllable, voluminous and heavy line frequency transformers.
Based on such devices a smart grid comparable to the internet, where a plug and playconnec- tion of sources and loads, distributed energy uploads and downloads and energy routing for transferring energy from the producer to the consumer, is possible. In the top of Fig. These proposals are also based on IGBT devices, which significantly limit the feasible switching frequencies and the voltage level of the converter systems.
In order to overcome these limits, new converter systems cf. Furthermore, these systems require a lower number of converter stages, what results in lower system costs and a higher reliability. There the switching behaviour of the SiC switches, the design of the transformer and the achievable performance of the dc-dc converter are presented.
Finally, the system parameters of a 1MW solid-state transformer based on the SiC dc-dc converter are calculated and the performance of the different topologies with respect to power density, efficiency and realisation effort is compared in SectionIV.
Conventional system with the bulky line frequency transformer; Future solid-state transformers: Due to the high operating frequency the volume and the weight of the isolating transformer becomes very small in comparison to line fre- quency based concepts.
In order to limit the switching losses at the high frequencies switches based on SiC JFETs, which switch several kilovolts in less than ns, are applied. With these devices operating frequencies of several tens of kilohertz are possible. In order to reduce the required blocking voltage of the semiconductors several cells are connected in series. Furthermore, the three converter branches are star connected. With this concept SSTs for medium voltage level kV applications can be realised.
Based on the available switches also a direct 3-phase topology as shown in Fig. Due to the reduced number of required switches the system costs reduce and the reliability increase. In topology B the DC link is split up, so that a series connection of two 2-level dc-dc converter as in topology A is possible. There, the balancing of the two dc volt- ages is possible with the proper control of the AC-DC stage.
In topology C 3-level branches are also utilised in the dc-dc converter so that a single dc-dc converter cell is sufficient. Therefore, the design and the performance of a 25kW converter operating at a DC link voltage of 5kV and an operating frequency of 50kHz is discussed in detail in the following. There, a SiC SuperCascode with a blocking voltage of 7. The basic operating principle of the SiC Super Cascode is described in  and the concept for voltage balancing is derived in .
This fast switching transition in combination with the ZVS switching condition drasti- cally reduces the switching losses. In the final paper simulation results for a 30kV switch based on 6.
Due to the high operating frequencies the HF losses in the windings must be limited by a careful design, so that the efficiency of the transformer is high and its volume low. SiC Super Cascode characteristics: Turn on and turn off behaviour at different current , voltage distribution. In the final paper the detailed design of the transformer and the calculated transient voltage distribution are presented. Performance of a 1MW system based on the measurement and design results of the bi-directional dc-dc converter.
There, also the operating principle of the Super Cascode and voltage balancing methods as well as the detailed design of the high voltage transformer are explained. The co-processing of alternative fuels and raw materials AFR — the substitution of traditional resources by waste materials — offers a large potential to reduce the environmental impact. Traditional fuels such as coal or heavy oil may be substituted by a variety of wastes, either of biogenic origin e. Traditional raw materials like limestone, marl and clay may be substituted among others by ashes, slags and industrial waste sands.
The tool is intended for the cement industry and for authorities. It shall improve the understanding of the environmental impacts of co-processing and may support the permitting process for waste utilization in the cement industry.
Effects of AFR co-processing on the environment Co-processing of alternative fuels and raw materials provides three main environmental benefits: Firstly, the substitution of primary fuels and raw materials by wastes conserves non-renewable resources. Secondly, co-process- ing of waste may reduce emissions.
In case of fuel substitution by biogenic wastes, the emission of greenhouse gases is reduced. CO2 emissions from calcination can be reduced if the co-processed wastes contain already calcined minerals e. Thirdly, co-processing offers a viable option for waste treatment with efficient heat and material recovery without produc- ing residues. Environmental burdens from waste co-processing may stem from additional requirements to prepare the wastes before feeding them into the kiln.
In addition, wastes with a high content of heavy metals may lead to increased air emissions of volatile heavy metals e. For a comprehensive evaluation of the environmental impacts all benefits need to be compared against the burdens, including the influence on the grey energy balance and material demand e. Applied methodology and system modeling Life cycle assessment LCA offers a framework to comprehensively assess the environmental impacts of AFR co-processing.
LCA not only considers direct environmental effects of the cement production process but also includes the upstream production chain from the mining of the resources to the material transport to the cement plant. A variety of life cycle impact assessment LCIA methods allows either focusing on specific impact categories such as global warming, acidification, and human toxicity, or to produce summarized damage scores by aggregating different damage categories to a single score value.
The core of the cement production tool constitutes a substance flow model, which was set up in close collaboration with a project partner from the cement industry. The upstream data for resource production and transports were taken from an LCA database.
Various cement kiln types, operating modes, and secondary flue gas treatment installations have been modeled. The modular structure of the tool allows carrying out assessments for a large variety of existing cement plants.
The substance flow model that constitutes the basis of the life cycle assessment contains default values for the efficiency of the plant components as well as for the chemical composition, pre-processing, and transport of all resources. If the default values do not correspond to case-specific data, the user may apply own input data. Emphasis was put on designing the tool for experts in the cement and waste sector, most of whom have only little knowledge of the life cycle assessment methodology.
Hence, while the process parameters must be precisely specified and checked, the LCA part has been simplified to selecting the assessment method of choice. First results show that the envi- ronmental benefit of AFR co-processing are the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, while the effects on harmful emissions for the ecosystem and human health may be either positive or negative, depending on the kiln type and operating modes, and on the level of contamination of the input wastes.
It threatens to have major adverse impact on natural world as well as on human society. Recent events have emphatically demonstrated our growing vulnerability towards unpredictable climate.
The only way to prevent the adverse impacts is to reduce and stabilize total world green house gas emissions. It means big cuts right away. Education, awareness generation and capacity building are among the proposed strategies to mitigate climate change predicted ill-effects. To achieve this objective, general public needs to be sensitized especially the future generation and government imparts adequate information on the issue so that they adjust their behavior in ways that limit emissions.
With this as an objective, the UNFCCC under its Article-6 have identified the importance of communicating this environment concern to the community. It is evident that communication and awareness programs have a proven record in bringing about behaviour change in health and environmental practices. A well-conceived communications programme for addressing climate change issue can similarly be successful if government takes proactive and sensible steps.
Realizing this as a significant move, many countries have already started working actively to strengthen their national Article-6 programme taking into consideration their common but differentiated responsibilities and other specific national and regional development priorities.
The study identified the Indian initiatives undertaken on climate change through education, awareness generation and capacity building and the impact of these activities on general public and students.
It also examined how well India is following its commit- ment. Keeping in view the high prevalence of stakeholders and work done on the subject in the country, the State of Delhi was selected.
The study examined the impacts of the education initiative on students and outreach pro- grams by government and other institutions aimed at raising awareness about climate change on general public. Result and discussion As of know India has already taken some remarkable steps in the field of climate change awareness.
The project aims at developing the National Communication on climate change involving research institutions, technical institutions, universities, government departments and NGOs.
To facilitate the process, under the aegis of the project, several seminars, workshops and outreach programs have been conducted all over India for planning the work, developing linkages and developmental and economic processes pertaining to different components of the National Communication.
It is found that very few NGOs and organizations have targeted farmers and rural folk. According to the NGOs most common problems identified are: Approximately 8 out of 10 respondents i. Some suggestions to tackle the problem of climate change had been given such as by planting tress; lessen use of high voltage equipments, reducing carbon dioxide emission, and use of cleaner fuel like C.
G etc are some of the measures through which the problem could be solved. In total 95 respondents were surveyed, to assess the awareness level of general public on climate change through personal in- terviews. Based on previous studies on this subject, the questionnaire was designed.
Those who were aware also agreed this problem would accelerate if present emission rate of greenhouse gases is not checked specifically of carbon dioxide. Approximately 3 out of 10 were in favour of changing lifestyle.
However, few numbers of respondent indicated some other sources also such as exhibitions, seminars. The survey result showed that students are well informed about the issue; however more effort needs to be done to raise the general public awareness. This majority is mainly composed of adults who have little or no formal education, especially in the area of science. Here media has to play significant role and government should also encourage them in creating documentary, publishing articles, stories and organizing events on climate change so that message would spread across the society.
The issue of climate change has only recently been a topic within the high school science curriculum, and therefore the younger generation is more aware of the associated issues. Unfortunately, most people not readily see the effects of climate change in their day to day activities so they do not care much about it.
The press and other mass media are playing a vital role to inform the public about climate change problems. Television and radio are by far also seen as being the most influential source for this information. Recommendations The recommendations given are very specific and relate to the findings observed during the period of the study: Information should be available in a simple and consumable manner to generate action-oriented results.
Bring out books and literature documenting best participatory practices, involving local com- munity and government, which would provide linkages to their day to day life, their life style and how traditional knowledge of the common people can be integrated to some simple responses to climate change. Such books and literature must be written in the language and that is local- ized with familiar illustrations, making it easy to understand.
Media is playing a significant role in awareness creation. It is also recommend- ed that there is the need of collective action through synchronization of all current and future programs run by civil society or any other department with media.
ZnO samples of varying thickness were exposed to a continuous beam of near mono- chromatic thermal radiation in the 0. A Monte Carlo ray-tracing model of the experimental set-up is employed to extract the extinction coefficient and the scattering albedo for the case of non-grey absorbing-scattering medium. Experimental set-up 1 with a rotary detector: Experimental set-up 2 with a fixed detector: The graph shows the normalized detector signal plotted against the measurement angle.
The measured data is at nm. There- fore policy tools to influence consumer behavior move into the focus of both policy makers and academic research. Reducing average CO2 emissions of new car registrations is essential to lowering energy consumption for passenger transport in general. Since these two elements have shown not to be sufficient in bringing CO2 emissions down, in the years to come the third pillar will gain momentum: As suitable fiscal measure, feebate schemes a composition of fee and rebate; another term being carrotand-stick systems are currently being discussed as method-of-choice to influence car purchase behavior.
Feebate systems are currently in effect in the Netherlands, Belgium and the United Kingdom. They are under investigation in several other countries. Two different schools can be distinguished: However, consumers traditionally purchasing larger cars might feel as not being addressed by such a policy. Com- pared to small car buyers, purchasers of large cars would have to change their behavior more to become eligible for a rebate. Using relative energy-efficiency as policy base while still pursuing the underlying policy target of CO2 reductions would overcome this problem, but could open the door to another: Could such tax rebates motivate people to shift to cars that are larger in size having higher relative efficiency but lower absolute efficiency?
We present some highlights from our results from a population-representative Swiss mail-back survey. People where asked about their car choice behavior and likely reaction to hypothetical rebates.
Our results confirm that indeed part of the population is likely to change to cars with higher relative but lower absolute efficiency, driven by rebate eligibility. In addition, some people state that a tax rebate would in fact increase their total car purchase budget, which is likely to affect fuel consumption as well. We conclude that such counteracting side-effects cannot be avoided completely. In order to limit and contain its impact on the efficiency of fee- bate policies, it is important to carefully design the definition of energy-efficiency.
We also present some highlighted results from a multi-agent simulation car market model, where 40 different agent types are distinguished and separate sales statistics for over different car models are generated.
The model includes many elements of so-called bounded rationality: Also built-in are elements of psychological effects mental accounting, marginal utility, reference point effects, etc. We show which feebate design results in higher efficiency. This often puts such policy schemes, regarding avoidance costs per ton of CO2, at the same level as insulating residential dwellings, heating system retrofits, etc.
The condenser and the subcooler if intro- duced is common to both cycles. The power from the ORC turbine is used to drive the compressor of the heat pump cycle. This system works between three main temperature levels and is therefore similar to an absorption heat pump. The use of gas bearings enables the system to be oil-free.
This gives the system the advantage of low maintenance costs. Using the same working fluid in both cycles does not come without difficulty due to the large difference between the high and low temperature levels.
Regarding the design of dynamic compressors and turbines a low density fluid is preferred. Moreover the working fluid has to be chemically stable at relatively high temperatures.
High speed compressor-expander unit. At first, pressure drops in the heat exchangers and pipes, and heat losses are neglected. The expansion in the valve is considered to be isenthalpic. The pump isentropic efficiency is considered to be constant and equal to 0.
The losses related to the compressor- turbine shaft are modeled. Turbine and compressor efficiency are estimated using a polynomial function of the specific speed. Two heat sources are defined. Heat delivered by the condensation of the water from the combustion gases is also considered. The heat demands include domestic hot water and water for heating.
The streams of the whole system are shown in Figure 3. An in-house multiobjective optimization tool, MOO, which is based on a genetic algorithm, is used to generate optimal solutions. The pareto curve resulting from a two-objective optimization with the COP maximization as first objective and the compressor- turbine rotational speed minimization as second objective is shown on Figure 4.
The flow diagram of an optimally integrated system is given in Figure 5. Streams of the system Figure 4: Pareto curve of the optimization with the COP and rotational speed as objectives Figure 5: Flow diagram of an optimally integrated system Depending on the application, the temperature difference in the heat exchanger at the heat source might be substantial which results in large exergy losses. It appears also that efficient high speed compressor-turbine units for those applications are feasible.
Wawrzyniak 2, A, Barczynski2 In Central Europe there are small fields of natural gases only those in Poland estimated at more than billon Nm3. The table presents typical molar fractions of gases and their properties. Contrary to Norwegian fields containing CO2, whose removal is relatively simple through absorption in glycols, our local gases are difficult to purify.
This parameter is almost constant, which suggests that the calorific value of natural gases in crude molar fraction compositions is not crucial. A far more important parameter, as was demonstrated by many years of experience of the present authors in industrial utilisation of such gases, is the velocity of laminar flame propagation. The calculated methane numbers MN in the table show that an increase in molar fraction of inert gas is accompanied by an increase of the MN.
So it is possible to obtain a higher efficiency of reciprocating gas engines by using a higher compression ratio. Molar fraction of low calorific natural gases in crude composition.
Generally speaking, such gases should be purified from the inert gas and from higher hydrocarbons so as to make them conform to the pipeline standards. Nitrogen can be removed through cryogenic technologies or through the use of membranes. The technology of separation of methane and nitrogen on membranes is still being developed and not yet fully applicable on industrial scale. Sending such gases to the pipeline system requires the removal of inert gas either in a small local installation or in a more economical bigger one.
Both options increase the cost of exploitation: The transport of gas to a central big cryogenic installation consumes between 0. The cryogenic method of removal of nitrogen requires compressing the gas into inlet pressure of at least 50 bar. Throughout the process liquid methane circulated in the installation must be compressed several times with the total energy consumption not ex- ceeding 2. Since the outlet pressure does not exceed 16 bar, before transporting the purified gas has to be compressed to at least 55 bar.
The engines driving compressors consume at least 1. Due to the small volume of those fields typically no more than tons of crude oil per day the oil must be carried in railway tanks. In the process of filling the tanks with crude oil big amounts of vapours of hydrocarbons are released into the atmosphere, which is very harmful for the greenhouse effect. The poster presents a special installation for thermal destruction of those vapours designed by the authors. The above limitations in the use of small gas fields can be dealt with through technologies that are presented in three additional posters listed below: Our research has to answer the following questions: The first poster  presents the results of investigation of combustion of crude natural gases in modern technology called flame- less combustion or alternately highly preheated air combustion- HiTAC.
The technology is focused on utilization of gases in glass bath, ceramic industry, steel production and so on. The technology of combustion investigated by the authors consisted in the separate injection of gas and air into the combustion chamber. It was found that combustion of natural gases containing unusual high amounts of N2 is not harmful concerning the emission of NOx for technologies where the temperature of air filled into the combustion chamber is not much higher than the ambient temperature.
This means that for conventional burners the temperature of the flame would considerably exceed the threshold of drastic increase of thermal NOx. This threshold is due to the dissociation of oxygen starting at local flame temperatures above K.
Figure 1 presents a comparison of emission of NOx for three cases of combustion: As can be seen, in a well designed burner emission of NOx can be kept even below 50 ppm. Comparison of emission of NOx for different methods of combustion and different of inlet temperature of air.
This method of gas utiliza- tion seems particularly suitable for small cogenerative installations located sufficiently close to the field to allow the sending of gas through the natural pressure of the field. As was mentioned, crude NG has a very high methane number MN. This makes its burning in reciprocating engines potentially profitable as it is possible through a simple regulation of compression ratio to raise the engine efficiency by over 1.
Emission of nitric oxides from gas engine. The third poster  presents the advantages of utilization of crude NG in gas turbines. The optimal level assumes the primary saving energy parameter PSE attaining the reference efficiency of at least Such high efficiency is unattainable in reciprocating engines or in simple cycle gas turbines. It can be attained only in systems CCHP of medium and high capacity.
The above considerations show that every effort should be made to raise the primary efficiency of gas turbines. The present paper presents some ways of achieving this goal. On potential influence of a molar fraction of inert gas contained in the fuel gas on thermal efficiency of gas turbine, Smart Energy Strategies, ETH Combustion of crude composed natural gases in high temperature operating fur- naces — flameless combustion, Smart Energy Strategies, ETH The distributed generation nature of the technology also has the potential to reduce electrical transmission and distribution inefficiencies and alleviate utility peak demand problems.
However, the technology competes with other supply options like innovative central electricity generation and heat pump technologies and — for renewable energies — solar thermal and photovoltaic systems and biomass fuelled systems. The performance in terms of non-renewable primary energy NRPE demand and carbon dioxide equivalent emissions has been studied for a number of natural gas driven microcogeneration MCHP systems in residential buildings, namely natural gas fuelled solid oxide SOFC and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells PEMFC , Stirling and internal combustion IC engines, and compared to the reference system with condensing gas boiler and electricity supply from the grid.
Ground-coupled heat pump systems were also analysed for comparison. The cogeneration devices were integrated into single-family houses SFH and multi-family houses MFH of three different energy standard levels: Swiss average residential building stock Swiss av. Three different grid electricity mixes were considered, using primary energy and emission factors from the Ecoinvent database: Combinations of three demand levels were considered.
For the MCHP devices, detailed dynamic component models as well as simplified performance map models were used. The models were devel- oped within IEA-ECBCS Annex 42 and partially calibrated with results from laboratory experiments with prototype or commercially available micro-cogeneration devices. In addition, polygeneration systems, comprising a small natural gas driven cogeneration CHP device, a thermally driven cooling TDC device and a back-up boiler, were analyzed using models based on average efficiencies.
For an office building complying with advanced building standards, different combinations of capacities and efficiencies of CHP and TDC devices were simulated, and the results compared to the reference system with gas boiler, mechanical chiller and electricity supply from the grid.
The build- ing loads are determined as 1h-values with the whole-building simulation tool TRNSYS, using standard occupancy and electric demand profiles specified by Swiss standards.
For the polygeneration systems the study showed that the operation time of the cogeneration device CHP can be significantly increased when coupled to a thermally driven cooling TDC device. Reductions of annual non-renewable primary energy demand for the residential cogeneration and heat pump sys- tems analyzed, compared to the condensing gas boiler reference system, for the six residential building types and the three grid electricity generation mixes considered. As many EU guidelines, policy papers, national laws, local mission statements demand an enormous increase in the production of renewable energy and biofuel, accurate data on their spatial distribution and dimension is urgently needed.
Therefore all results were visualised in maps down to the level of the communities, which represents an innovative approach since most previous studies included only figure calculations on the federal or national level.
The complete map slideshow in german can be viewed here: Main important results — Biomass The future of biomass-related energy production lies within a vast pool of rather small-scaled de-centralised facilities, using lo- cal resources from the nearby environment.
The aggregation of forest, agriculture including derelict areas , grassland and reed indicated clearly the respective focus areas, representing typical landscape units on the one hand and the per-capita hectares per person distribution on the other. Using a simple model showing the probable share of potential energetic use in total in competition to industrial use or food production the energy output of 38 Petajoule seems possible in a short-time period.
This amount represents a heat capacity for about 1. In order to increase efficient biomass energy production without huge transport costs, rural communities with large areas, but low population densities have the best endogenous preconditions, whereas urban regions will always be bound to immense imports of resources.
The aggregation of the different potential biomass areas showed that the most promising regions are the northern and southern parts of Lower Austria.
The eastern part of Lower Austria and the northern part of the Burgenland close to the Neusiedler Lake can rather benefit from agricultural Biomass. The east shore of the lake also provides a very specific resource — large reed fields — which are ecologically very valuable, but can also provide heat production. Concerns about rising energy demands, escalating electric- ity prices and greenhouse gas emissions are not only entering the agenda of governments but also limit business growth.
One of the highly affected business areas is information technology IT and IT service providers. So far they were focused on meeting the rapidly increasing computing demand. For this, new high performance and high density IT equipment was deployed, doubling the energy consumption of data centers from to Koomey, This development is accompanied by new urgent concerns: Rising energy consumption and electricity costs will make operating expenses exceed server capital expenses by Brill, Gov- ernments, in particular in the EU and the US, are working on new legislation for environmental protection, affecting IT products and operations that cause emissions of CO2 or other greenhouse gases Mines, The Challenge of Finding the Right Green IT Strategy Fortunately, green solutions exist already today to improve the energy efficiency of data centers and reduce risks, while enabling CIOs to meet expanding business needs.
Nevertheless there is no perfect strategy to create a green data center because of the diversity of design and requirements of data centers. Depending on the issues, there is a long list of possible green solutions vary- ing by impact, cost and sustainability. In addition, the Dictionary is now supplemented with millions of real-life translation examples from external sources. So, now you can see how a concept is translated in specific contexts.
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