Spices notably chili , coconut milk , fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients. Retrieved 9 August Youth unemployment rate female to male ratio. Prior to the arrival of Hinduism, Buddhism and Abrahamic religions, the natives of the Indonesian archipelago practiced indigenous animism and dynamism , beliefs that are common to Austronesian people.
Human Development Indicators
Indonesia's annual economic growth eased to 5. The expansion was mainly driven by private consumption and fixed investment while net exports contributed negatively to the GDP growth. Trading Economics members can view, download and compare data from nearly countries, including more than 20 million economic indicators, exchange rates, government bond yields, stock indexes and commodity prices.
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Click here to contact us. Meantime, GDP increased at a faster pace for: On a quarterly basis, the economy grew 3. For , the government still expects the economy to grow by 5. The central bank's forecast is between 5. It was the strongest pace of expansion since the last quarter of , driven by faster rises in private consumption and government spending while fixed investment grew firmly.
Driven by increased global demand and higher yields, palm oil cultivation has been expanded significantly by Indonesian farmers and conglomerates at the expense of the environment and at the expense of production figures of other agricultural products such as cocoa or coffee because farmers switched to palm oil plantation due to the promising perspectives.
The majority of Indonesia's palm oil output is exported. The most important export destination countries are China, India, Pakistan, Malaysia, and the Netherlands. Although the numbers are very insignificant, Indonesia also imports some palm oil, primarily from India. Indeed, the majority of Indonesian palm oil is exported see table below. However, due to Indonesia's expanding population as well as rapidly expanding middle class and the government's support for biodiesel, domestic palm oil demand in Indonesia is growing as well.
Rising domestic palm oil demand could in fact mean that crude palm oil CPO shipments from Indonesia will stagnate in the years ahead if the government remains committed to the moratorium on conversion of peat-land read more below. The table above shows production of palm oil has grown rapidly in Indonesia over the past decade. Indonesia's oil palm plantation and processing industry is a key industry to the country's economy: In terms of agriculture, palm oil is the most important industry of Indonesia contributing between 1.
Almost 70 percent of Indonesia's oil palm plantations are located on Sumatra where the industry was started during the Dutch colonial days. The remainder - around 30 percent - is largely found on the island of Kalimantan. This figure is expected to increase to 13 million hectares by the year State-owned enterprises play a very modest role in the Indonesian palm oil sector as they own relatively few plantations.
Meanwhile, big private enterprises for example, the Wilmar Group and Sinar Mas Group are dominant, producing slightly over half of total Indonesian palm oil output. Smallholder farmers account for around 40 percent of total production. However, most of these smallholder farmers are highly vulnerable to global downswings in palm oil prices as they cannot enjoy the cash reserves or bank loans that the big planters have at their disposal.
Big Indonesian companies for example Unilever Indonesia have invested heavily in recent years to expand palm oil refining capacity. This is in line with the government's ambition to extract more revenue from Indonesia's natural resources. The country has always been mainly focused and dependent on the export of raw palm oil and other raw commodities but over the past decade authorities have shifted their priority to refined products, higher up in the value chain, which also form a buffer in times of sliding palm oil prices.
Palm oil refining capacity in Indonesia is understood to have jumped to an annual 45 million tons by the start of , up from an To spur growth in the downstream palm oil industry, the export tax on refined palm oil products has been slashed in recent years.
Meanwhile, the export tax for CPO ranges between 0 and Problematically, the zero percent export tax for CPO meant the government missed out on a big chunk of much-needed tax revenue from the palm oil industry. Therefore, it decided to introduce palm oil export levies in mid Garuda Indonesia , the country's flag carrier since , is one of the world's leading airlines and a member of the global airline alliance SkyTeam.
In , Indonesia was the world's 9th largest energy producer with Jatiluhur Dam , the country's largest dam, serves several purposes including the provision of hydroelectric power generation, water supply, flood control, irrigation and aquaculture. Indonesia's expenditure on science and technology is relatively low, at less than 0. However, there are several examples of notable scientific and technological developments by Indonesians. Living in agrarian and maritime culture, they have been famous in some traditional technologies.
In the former, as with other nations in Southeast Asia, they are famous in paddy cultivation technique, terasering. Bugis and Makassar people are well known in the latter, making wooden sailing vessel called pinisi boats. It later became widely used in several countries. Indonesia has a long history in developing military and small commuter aircraft as the only country in Southeast Asia to produce and develop its own aircraft.
With state-owned aircraft company, the Indonesian Aerospace PT. Habibie played an important role in this achievement. In the s, Indonesia became the first developing country to operate its own satellite system called Palapa. Since January , Wonderful Indonesia has been the slogan of an international marketing campaign directed by the Ministry of Tourism to promote tourism.
Nature and culture are major attractions of Indonesian tourism. The former can boast a unique combination of tropical climate, vast archipelago and long stretch of beaches, and are complemented by a rich cultural heritage that reflects Indonesia's dynamic history and ethnic diversity.
Forests on Sumatra and Kalimantan are examples of popular destinations, such as the Orangutan wildlife reserve. The ancient Prambanan and Borobudur temples, Toraja and Bali , with its Hindu festivities, are some of the popular destinations for cultural tourism. Other activities include visiting museums, churches, forts and historical colonial buildings, as well as spending some nights in colonial heritage hotels.
The popular heritage tourism attractions include the Jakarta Old Town and the royal Javanese courts of Yogyakarta , Surakarta and the Mangkunegaran. The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report ranks Indonesia 42nd out of countries overall with a score of 4.
It states that Indonesia has a strong visa policy and scored well on international openness ranked 2nd and 17th respectively. The country also scores well on natural and cultural resources ranked 17th and 23rd respectively. However, Indonesia has a low score in infrastructure ranked 96th , as some aspects of tourist service infrastructure are underdeveloped.
The census recorded Indonesia's population as The population is unevenly spread throughout the islands within a variety of habitats and levels of development , ranging from the megalopolis of Jakarta to uncontacted tribes in Papua.
Indonesia is a very ethnically diverse country, with around distinct native ethnic groups. The Sundanese , Batak and Madurese are the largest non-Javanese groups. The country's official language is Indonesian , a variant of Malay based on its prestige dialect , which for centuries had been the lingua franca of the archipelago. It was promoted by nationalists in the s , and declared the official language under the name Bahasa Indonesia in Most Indonesians also speak at least one of more than local languages,  often as their first language.
Some belong to the Austronesian language family , while over Papuan languages are spoken in eastern Indonesia. In , Dutch and other Europeans Totok , Eurasians , and derivative people like the Indos , numbered , or 0. Despite the Dutch presence for almost years, the Dutch language has no official status  and the small minority that can speak the language fluently are either educated members of the oldest generation, or employed in the legal profession,  as certain law codes are still only available in Dutch.
While religious freedom is stipulated in the constitution,   the government officially recognises only six religions: Islam , Protestantism , Roman Catholicism , Hinduism , Buddhism , and Confucianism ;  although indigenous faiths are also recognised.
Ten out of 15 national holidays scheduled for are related to religion. Prior to the arrival of Hinduism, Buddhism and Abrahamic religions, the natives of the Indonesian archipelago practiced indigenous animism and dynamism , beliefs that are common to Austronesian people. They have had significant impact on how other faiths are practiced, evidenced by a large proportion of people—such as the Javanese abangan , Balinese Hindus , and Dayak Christians—practicing a less orthodox , syncretic form of their religion.
Hindu influences reached the archipelago as early as the first century CE. The archipelago has witnessed the rise and fall of powerful and influential Hindu and Buddhist empires such as Majapahit , Sailendra , Srivijaya and Mataram. Though no longer a majority, Hinduism and Buddhism remain defining influences in Indonesian culture. Islam was introduced to the archipelago by Sunni traders of the Shafi'i school of jurisprudence, as well as Sufi traders from the Indian subcontinent and southern Arabian peninsula.
Catholicism was brought to the archipelago by Portuguese traders and missionaries such as Jesuit Francis Xavier , who visited and baptised several thousand locals. In present-day Flores , the royal house of Larantuka formed the only native Catholic kingdom in Southeast Asia around 16th century, with the first king named Lorenzo. Education in Indonesia is compulsory for 12 years. The literacy rate is Andalas University is pioneering the establishment of a leading university outside of Java.
Government expenditure on healthcare is about 3. In recent decades, health indicators have significantly improved such as rising life expectancy from 63 in to 71 in and declining child mortality from 84 deaths per 1, births in to 27 deaths in This has created a gap in wealth, unemployment rate, and health between densely populated islands and economic centres such as Sumatra and Java and sparsely populated, disadvantaged areas such as Maluku and Papua.
In , the Chinese Christian governor of Jakarta Basuki Tjahaja Purnama was sentenced to two years in prison after being found guilty of blasphemy.
Cultural history of the Indonesian archipelago spans more than two millennia. Influences from the Indian subcontinent , mainland China , the Middle East , Europe ,   and the Austronesian peoples have historically shaped the cultural, linguistic and religious make-up of the archipelago.
As a result, modern-day Indonesia has a multicultural, multilingual and multi-ethnic society,   with complex cultural mixture that differs significantly from the original indigenous cultures. Indonesia currently holds 9 items of UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage , which include wayang puppet theatre , kris , batik , education and training on making Indonesian batik, angklung , saman dance , noken , and the three genres of traditional Balinese dance.
Indonesian arts include both age-old art forms developed through centuries, and a recently developed contemporary art. Despite often displaying local ingenuity, Indonesian arts have absorbed foreign influences—most notably from India , the Arab world , China and Europe , as a result of contacts and interactions facilitated, and often motivated, by trade. Megalithic sculpture has been discovered on several sites in Indonesia.
Between the 8th and 15th century, Javanese civilisation has developed a refined stone sculpting art and architecture which was influenced by Hindu-Buddhist Dharmic civilisation. The temples of Borobudur and Prambanan are among the most famous examples of the practice. As with the arts, Indonesian architecture has absorbed foreign influences that has brought cultural changes and profound effect on building styles and techniques.
The most dominant influence has traditionally been Indian ; however, Chinese, Arab, and European influences have also been significant. Traditional carpentry, masonry, stone and woodwork techniques and decorations have thrived in vernacular architecture, with numbers of traditional houses' rumah adat styles have been developed. The traditional houses and settlements of the numerous ethnic groups of Indonesia vary widely and have their own specific history.
They are at the centre of a web of customs, social relations, traditional laws and religions that bind the villagers together. The music of Indonesia predates historical records. Various indigenous tribes incorporate chants and songs accompanied with musical instruments in their rituals.
Angklung , kacapi suling , siteran , gong , gamelan , degung , gong kebyar , bumbung , talempong , kulintang and sasando are examples of traditional Indonesian instruments. The diverse world of Indonesian music genres are the result of the musical creativity of its people, and subsequent cultural encounters with foreign influences.
These include gambus and qasida from the Middle East,  keroncong from Portugal,  and dangdut —one of the most popular music genres in Indonesia—with notable Hindi influence as well as Malay orchestras.
Indonesian dances have a diverse history, with more than 3, original dances. Scholars believe that they have had their beginning in rituals and religious worship,  such as war dances, dance of witch doctors , and dance to call for rain or any agricultural-related rituals such as Hudoq.
Indonesian dances derive its influences from the archipelago's three distinct historical eras: In recent times, modern dances are also showcased in show business, such as those that accompany music performances or entertainment. Influenced by Western culture, urban teen dances such as street dances have gained popularity among the Indonesian youth.
Traditional dances, however, such as the Javanese , Sundanese , Minang , Balinese , Saman continue to be a living and dynamic traditions. Indonesia has a variety style of clothing as a result from its long and rich cultural history. Its national costume is derived from the indigenous culture of the country and traditional textile traditions. Since Java is the political, economic and cultural center of Indonesia, the Javanese Batik and Kebaya  are arguably Indonesia's most recognised national costume, although they originally belong not only to the Javanese, but also Sundanese and Balinese cultures as well.
National costumes are worn during traditional weddings, formal ceremonies and music performances where attires of regional costumes are clearly visible ranging from traditional to modern attire, as well as on government and official occasions,  with the most visible display being those worn by diplomats, the President and the First Lady. Wayang , the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese shadow puppet theatre display several mythological legends such as Ramayana and Mahabharata.
It is usually performed for traditional ceremonies and festivals,   and based on semi-historical Minangkabau legends and love story. Notable theatre, dance, and drama troupe such as Teater Koma are popular in the country as it often portrays social and political satire of Indonesian society. The first domestically produced film in the archipelago was Loetoeng Kasaroeng , a silent film by Dutch director L.
After independence, the film industry expanded rapidly, with six films made in rising to 58 in Djamaluddin Malik 's Persari Film often emulated American genre films and the working practices of the Hollywood studio system, as well as remaking popular Indian films. Independent filmmaking was a rebirth of the film industry in the post-Suharto era , where films started addressing topics that were previously banned, such as religion, race, and love.
Jangkrik Boss Part 1 smashed box office records, becoming the most-watched Indonesian film with 6. It hands out the Citra Award , the film industry's most prestigious award.
From to , the festival was held annually and then discontinued until it was later revived in Media freedom increased considerably after the fall of New Order, during which the Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media, and restricted foreign media.
By early 21st century, the improved communications system had brought television signals to every village and people can choose from up to 11 channels. The number of printed publications has increased significantly since Like other developing countries, Indonesia began the development of Internet in the early s. Its first commercial Internet service provider , PT.
Indo Internet, began operation in Jakarta in The majority of Internet users are between the ages of 18 and 25, with an average usage of 4. The oldest evidence of writing in the Indonesian archipelago is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century. Many of Indonesia's peoples have strongly rooted oral traditions , which help to define and preserve their cultural identities.
Early modern Indonesian literature originates in Sumatran tradition. It adopted Malay as the preferred common medium for Indonesia. Important figures in modern Indonesian literature include: Dutch author Multatuli , who criticised treatment of natives under Dutch colonial rule; Sumatrans Mohammad Yamin and Hamka , who were influential pre-independence nationalist writers and politicians;  and proletarian writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer , Indonesia's most famous novelist.
Indonesian cuisine is one of the most diverse, vibrant and colourful in the world, full of intense flavour. Spices notably chili , coconut milk , fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients. Some popular dishes such as nasi goreng , gado-gado , sate , and soto are very common in the country and considered as national dishes.
The Ministry of Tourism, however, chose tumpeng as the official national dish in , describing it as binding the diversity of various culinary traditions. Sports are generally male-oriented and spectators are often associated with illegal gambling. Indonesian badminton players have won the Thomas Cup the world team championship of men's badminton 13 times since it was held in , as well as numerous Olympic medals since the sport gained full Olympic status in Indonesian women have won the Uber Cup , the female equivalent of the Thomas Cup, 3 times, in , and Liga 1 is the country's premier football club league.
Indonesia's first appearance in the AFC Asian Cup was in , and successfully qualified for the next three tournaments. They, however, failed to progress through the next stage in all occasions. Another popular sports include boxing and basketball , which has a long history in Indonesia and was part of the first National Games Pekan Olahraga Nasional , PON in In areas with a history of tribal warfare, mock fighting contests are held, such as caci in Flores and pasola in Sumba.
Pencak Silat is an Indonesian martial art and in , became one of the sporting events in Southeast Asian Games , with Indonesia appearing as one of the leading forces. In Southeast Asia, Indonesia is one of the major sport powerhouses by winning the Southeast Asian Games 10 times since , most recently in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Republic in Southeast Asia. Fauna of Indonesia and Flora of Indonesia. Species endemic to Indonesia. Rafflesia arnoldii , orangutan , greater bird-of-paradise , and Komodo dragon. List of political parties in Indonesia and Elections in Indonesia. Joko Widodo 7th President of Indonesia. Jusuf Kalla 10th and 12th Vice President of Indonesia.
Foreign relations of Indonesia. Economy of Indonesia and Economic history of Indonesia. Major transport in Indonesia. Science and technology in Indonesia. Demographics of Indonesia , Indonesians , and Women in Indonesia. Religion in Indonesia  Religion Percent Islam.
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