Recombinant Human IL-2 Protein
Unrhymed verse was never popular, although sometimes it was sometimes imitated form Latin. Circulating biomarkers, including lipoprotein particles and the accompanying lipid molecules, represent key pathways for cardiometabolic diseases. Bioassay Exploiting a natural conformational switch to engineer an interleukin-2 'superkine'. Box , Kuopio, Finland E-mail:
As Abdullah ibn Mas'ood said "We were on a campaign with the Messenger of Allah blessings and peace of Allah be upon him , and we had no women with us. Why don't we get ourselves castrated? But he forbade us to do that. Otherwise, if permission had been given for that, then many people would have done that, and reproduction would have ceased, and the numbers of Muslims would have become less as a result, and the numbers of disbelievers would have increased, and that is contrary to the purpose for which the Prophet was sent.
A subject of castration who is altered before the onset of puberty will retain a high voice, non-muscular build, and small genitals. He may well be shorter than average, as the production of sex hormones in puberty—more specifically, estrogen via aromatization of testosterone—stops long bone growth.
The person may not develop pubic hair and will have a small sex drive or none at all. Castrations after the onset of puberty will typically reduce the sex drive considerably or eliminate it altogether. Castrated people are automatically sterile , because the testes for males and ovaries for females produce sex cells needed for sexual reproduction. Once removed, the subject is infertile. The voice does not change. Some castrated people report mood changes, such as depression or a more serene outlook on life, although this might not be due to chemical changes but instead emotional changes due to the implications of the procedure.
Body strength and muscle mass can decrease somewhat. Body hair may sometimes decrease. Castration prevents male pattern baldness if it is done before hair is lost. However, castration will not restore hair growth after hair has already been lost due to male pattern baldness. Historically, many eunuchs who additionally underwent a penectomy reportedly suffered from urinary incontinence associated with the removal of the penis. Without hormone replacement therapy HRT , typical symptoms similar to those experienced by menopausal women include hot flashes, gradual bone-density loss resulting in osteopenia or osteoporosis, and potential weight gain or redistribution of body fat to the hips and chest.
Replacement of testosterone in the form of gel, patches, or injections can largely reverse these effects, although breast enlargement has also been reported as a possible side effect of testosterone usage. The concept of castration plays an important role in psychoanalysis ; see , for example, castration anxiety. Castration as a metaphor also plays an important role in psychoanalytically-influenced literary theory, for example Harold Bloom 's The Anxiety of Influence. In the case of chemical castration, ongoing regular injections of anti-androgens are required.
Chemical castration does not actually remove the testicles or ovaries of the subject,  nor is it a form of sterilization. Chemical castration seems to have a greater effect on bone density than physical castration.
With the advent of chemical castration, physical castration is not generally recommended by the medical community unless medically necessary or desired, [ citation needed ] though some have undergone the procedure voluntarily. Humans commonly castrate domestic animals not intended for breeding. Domestic animals are usually castrated to avoid unwanted or uncontrolled reproduction ; to reduce or prevent other manifestations of sexual behaviour such as defending the herd from humans and other threats, or intra-herd aggression e.
Male horses are usually castrated gelded using emasculators , because stallions are rather aggressive and troublesome. The same applies to male mules , although they are sterile. Male cattle are castrated to improve fattening and docility in feedlots or for use as oxen. Breeding individuals are kept entire and used for breeding: Livestock may be castrated when used for food to increase growth or weight or both of individual male animals [ citation needed ] and because of the undesirable taste and odor of the meat from sexually mature males.
In domestic pigs the taint, called boar taint , is caused by androstenone and skatole concentrations stored in the fat tissues of the animal after sexual maturity. This is due to many breeds of pigs simply not having the heredity for the boar taint and the fact that pigs are normally slaughtered at a young market weight. In the case of pets, castration is usually called neutering , and is encouraged to prevent overpopulation of the community by unwanted animals, and to reduce certain diseases such as prostate disease and testicular cancer in male dogs oophorectomy in female pets is often called spaying.
Testicular cancer is rare in dogs, and also prostate problems are somewhat common in castrated male dogs when they get older. Castrated male cats are more likely to develop an obstruction in their urethra, preventing them from urinating to some degree. The term stag is used for a male animal castrated after the secondary sex characteristics have developed to such a point as to give him the appearance of sexual maturity. Methods of veterinary castration include instant surgical removal, the use of an elastrator tool to secure a band around the testicles that disrupts the blood supply, the use of a Burdizzo tool or emasculators to crush the spermatic cords and disrupt the blood supply, pharmacological injections and implants and immunological techniques to inoculate the animal against his own sexual hormones.
Certain animals, like horses and swine , are usually surgically treated with a scrotal castration which can be done with the animal standing while sedated and after local anesthetic has been applied , while others, like dogs and cats, are anesthetised and recumbent when surgically castrated with a pre-scrotal incision in the case of dogs, or a pre-scrotal or scrotal incision used for cats.
In veterinary practice an "open" castration refers to a castration in which the inguinal tunic is incised and not sutured. A "closed" castration refers to when the procedure is performed so that the inguinal tunic is sutured together after incision. Some parasitic nematodes chemically castrate their hosts. For example, Microphallus pseudopygmaeus chemically castrates its host, the snail Onoba aculeus , and causes it to grow larger than normal.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the practice as applied to humans. For livestock, see Neutering. Not to be confused with Penis removal or Emasculation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
February Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section needs additional citations for verification. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Neutering - Health and behavioral effects. Neutering and Veterinary sterilization surgery. Retrieved 5 February Royal imagery in medieval Georgia. Pennsylvania State University Press.
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Although the link is to a forum, the paper is posted in its full length there since it is not available online as it was never published. The following links are to papers and articles where the original paper by Jennifer W. Jay was referenced in the bibliography 5.
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Thapa Magar took him to Rani Haveli, a brothel in Mumbai that specialized in male sex workers and sold him for Nepali Rs 85, A Muslim man ran the flesh trade there in young boys and girls, most of them lured from Nepal. For two years, Raju was kept locked up, taught to dress as a girl and castrated. Many of the other boys there were castrated as well.
Beatings and starvation became a part of his life. Retrieved 13 June The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 30 May Retrieved 31 December Retrieved 17 August There is no reason, however, to doubt the report, for which we have unimpeachable testimony, and which is in itself not at all surprising The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.
Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 7 February Eunuchs lived longer, study finds". Social Justice, Spring, by Christopher Meisenkothen. Focus on Genetic Markers". Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 15 April Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. Male genital surgical and other procedures: Transurethral incision of the prostate Prostate biopsy Transrectal biopsy Transurethral biopsy Prostatectomy Transurethral resection of the prostate Radical retropubic prostatectomy Transurethral microwave thermotherapy Transurethral needle ablation of the prostate Brachytherapy Prostate brachytherapy Prostate massage.
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